Walking Stick Blogger

A Learning Space for Literacy and English Language Learners

Scratch Notes – Frameworks for Learning

The CoI framework is comprised of three interdependent and dynamic structural elements: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. Social Presence Social presence has been defined recently by Garrison (2009) as “the ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by…

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